Skip to content
Share Facebook Twitter Whatsapp Email

Infographics - Para AthleticsSince 1960, athletics has been part of the Paralympic Games and consists of a wide range of competitions and events that are open to both genders in all impairment groups, such as vision impairment, cerebral palsy, amputees and spinal cord injury athletes. This sport is carried out on either the track or in the field, and involves various events such as running, throwing or jumping. Wheelchair athletes compete on racing wheelchairs for the running events, while the visually impaired receive guidance from a sighted guide.


  • 100m
  • 200m
  • 400m
  • 800m
  • 1,500m
  • 5,000m
  • 4 x 100m
  • Javelin Throw
  • Discus Throw
  • Shot Put
  • Long Jump
  • High Jump

Athletes compete according to six functional classifications in each event, and the prefix T stands for “Track” and F stands for “Field”. The lower the sport class number is, the more significant the activity limitation. They are:

Sport Classes T/F11-13

  • Visual impairment
  • Allocated based on level of visual impairment

Sport Class T/F 20

  • Intellectual impairment

Sport Classes T32-38 and F31-38


  • Have athetosis, ataxia and/or hypertonia, which affect the ability to control legs, trunk, arms and hands
  • Classes 31-34: Compete in a seated position
  • Classes 35-38: Compete standing as they show better function in their legs and trunk control

Sport Class F40

  • Short stature

Sport Classes T/F42-46

  • Different levels of amputation
  • Classes 42-44: Legs affected
  • Classes 45-46: Arms affected
  • Compete standing

Sport Classes T51-54 and F51-58

  • Compete in a wheelchair

Photo credit: Alan Tan

Tournament Rules

Track events
During the race, as long as it does not interfere with other competing athletes, the athletes may move into other lanes. The end of the race is determined when the latter wheels of the wheelchair crosses the finish line.

  • Visual impairment events

Guides are allowed in T11 (complete blindness) events, and non-transparent glasses or eye patches are required to be used. The athletes in this event are allotted 2 lanes each (lanes 1, 3, 5, 7). T12 events allow optional use of guides and eye patches while T13 events do not require guides.

  • Amputation and other disability events

Athletes with lower limb amputations may use prosthetics. Hopping (running with both feet not in contact with the ground) will result in disqualification.

Field events
Sitting events consist of 6 games, with 3 consecutive throws and 3 final throws while standing events consist of 6 games, with 3 games played in order and 3 final throws.

  • Spinal injury events

Athletes use a specially designed wheelchair for the throwing games, which will be measured by the judges for compliance to the height regulations (75 cm total including 10 cm for cushions) prior to the games.

  • Visual impairments

F11 grade athletes require the use of eye patches, and can touch the bar beforehand during high jump events. Both F11 and F12 athletes can be guided based on the directions by the guide runners. They can use sound to determine the directions, and sound assistance is allowed during throwing events for guidance of directions.

  • Amputations and other disability events

All events follow the regulations for regular events, with the exception of the use of prosthetics.

  • Cerebral palsy events

Athletes use specially designed wheelchairs for throwing. The throwing techniques used include overdraw, side draw, and under draw. The winner is determined after adding the scores from all 6 throws.

  • Intellectual disability events

These events are held in regular stadiums and the weight of equipment should be modified for throwing events.

Singapore Sports Council logo

Live Better Through Sport - Sport Singapore recognises the value of sport in advancing the national priorities of developing our people and bonding our communities.


Singapore Sports Council location map

3 Stadium Drive, Singapore 397630

(Tel) 1800-3441177 (Fax) 6440 9205